Antoine de Saint-Exupery
As a symbol of peace, freedom, rapprochement of cultures and sharing, a «Banc de liberté» (A Freedom Bench), created in tribute to Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, was installed on the cornice of Essaouira, Tuesday, September 19, 2017.
This initiative, carried out in partnership with the Essaouira Mogador Association, comes after the installation of a first "Banc de liberté" in Place Mohammed V in Casablanca. This unprecedented operation, under the auspices of the Unesco-Unesco program, aims to "revive the airpostale, this community having risked its life to carry letters of peace and love between Europe and Africa, "explains the president of the association " Raid Latécoère ", Hervé Berardi. And to continue that "this cultural initiative invites to the exchange and gives access to the writings and cultural contents 365 days a year", recalling that "the Freedom Banks dedicated to Antoine de Saint-Exupéry is a symbol that we deliver in all stopovers ".
After Essaouira, a third "Freedom Bench" will be installed in Tarfaya, as part of activities organized around the 90th anniversary of the arrival of the pilot-writer, Antoine de Saint-Exupery in Tarfaya (Cap Juby) occasion of the passage of the Raid Latécoère-Aéropostale.
Read also about the tragic death of Lieutenant Aviator Cazes, a pioneer French pilot, who died when he crashed on the rocks on the shore of Mogador in 1913. Here
Antoine de Saint-Exupery
Aéropostale (formally, Compagnie générale aéropostale) was a pioneering aviation company which operated from 1918 to 1933.
It was founded in 1918 in Toulouse, France, as Société des lignes Latécoère, also known as Lignes aeriennes Latécoère or simply "The Line" (La ligne).
Saint-Exupéry receives his pilot wings
In 1921, Saint-Exupéry began his military service as a basic-rank soldier with the 2e Régiment de chasseurs à cheval (2nd Regiment of light cavalry) and was sent to Neuhof, near Strasbourg. While there he took private flying lessons and the following year was offered a transfer from the French Army to the French Air Force. He received his pilot's wings after being posted to the 37th Fighter Regiment in Casablanca, Morocco.
Manager for Cape Juby airfield in Tarfaya.
By 1926, Saint-Exupéry was flying again. He became one of the pioneers of international postal flight, in the days when aircraft had few instruments. Later he complained that those who flew the more advanced aircraft had become more like accountants than pilots. He worked for Aéropostale between Toulouse and Dakar, and then also became the airline stopover manager for the Cape Juby airfield in the Spanish zone of South Morocco, in the Sahara desert. His duties included negotiating the safe release of downed fliers taken hostage by hostile Moors, a perilous task which earned him his first Légion d'honneur from the French Government.
Toulouse - Rabat
On March 9, 1919, with the pilot Lemaître he crossed the distance from Toulouse to Rabat with stopover in Barcelona Alicante and Malaga. He brought Marshal Lyautey, who received him on the airfield, the newspaper "Le Temps" and a bunch of violets at the Marechale.
The success of the Line was such that it was borrowed by a King, two French Ministers, and a Marshal. She had heroic men as pilots: a Daurat who was a chief of exploitation, a Queen, a Mermoz, a Saint-Exupéry, a Guillaumet, and so many others... Some of whom paid with their lives for the regularity of the mail.
It was necessary to go further and cross the 2,800 kilometers which separated Casablanca from Dakar through the desert, the Rio de Oro and, in spite of the unsubstantiated tribes which in case of breakdown would seize the pilots and the loading of the apparatuses.
The Latécoère airlines continued until Dakar on May 5, 1923, and a regular postal service between Toulouse and Dakar operated from May 31, 1925
Tarfaya's association with Aéropostale began in 1927. The airmail carrier, based in Toulouse, France, was founded by French industrialist Pierre-Georges Latécoère, who envisioned an air route connecting France to its French colonies in Africa. Latécoère firmly believed in the future of aviation as a means of commercial transportation and communication between people.
The nearby Cape Juby airfield was an important refueling and stopover station for Aéropostale. Author-aviator Antoine de Saint-Exupéry was named its station manager in 1927. There he remained for 18 months, on occasion negotiating with the rebellious Moorish tribes to release his imprisoned pilots, as he wrote in his first novel, Southern Mail.
On 28 September 2004 a museum opened in honour of the memory of Aéropostale, Saint-Exupéry and its pilots, supported notably by the city of Toulouse and French aircraft maker Airbus. The museum was inaugurated by renowned aviation journalist Bernard Chabbert, whose father was also part of Aéropostale's history.
In 1912 the territory of Tarfaya, then named Cape Juby, was occupied by Spain as part of the Spanish Sahara.
When Morocco became independent in 1956, it asked for the cession of Moroccan areas controlled by Spain. After some resistance and some fighting in 1957 during the Ifni War, Cape Juby was ceded to Morocco in 1958. The region is now also known as the Tarfaya Strip.
Lignes aeriennes Latécoère or simply "The Line" (La ligne).
Map of colonial Morocco
THE MARTYROLOGY OF AIR
Honoring those who died in the Pioneer Era to give us wings.
For many of us, the history of aviation is full of heroes, reaching ever higher. We remember those who flew “firsts”, and who set records. All too often, we forget that the conquest of the skies was not without cost and failures. Many of the early aviators died in their efforts, and remain all-but-forgotten, as shown by the fact that I cannot readily retrieve first, or even family, names for all of them, and some remain “unnamed”. At various times, and in various groups of aviators, the death rate was reported to be as high as 87%, though the overall death rate was of course much lower than that.
THE TRAGIC DEATH OF LIEUTENANT AVIATOR CAZES
On September 22, a Blériot XI-2, coming from Casablanca and after a technical stopover in Safi, crashed at sea off Mogador, 300 meters from the shore, At 5 am. 45 in the afternoon.
Thanks to the immediate relief provided by natives, the mechanic-an engineer sapper, who accompanied the officer and pilot Ltt Jean Cazés could be brought back to shore and he is considered saved.
But the body of Lieutenant Cazes could not yet be rediscovered and the canoes which crossed on the site of the accident discovered only debris from the aircraft and had to interrupt their research following an intense mist. Lieutenant Cazes was no doubt carried away by his aircraft which sank.
A surveillance post has been placed at where the device fell.
The next day on September 23rd. — Lieutenant-aviator Van den Vaero, coming from Casablanca, flew over the place where Lieutenant Cazes perished, but, despite his searches, he did not see anything leading to the discovery of a trace of the unfortunate airman. It will be necessary to wait until October 27 for the sea to return the body of the pilot. He will be found at the mouth of the Oued-Sidzi, 20 km south of Mogador. ( http://albindenis.free.fr/Site_escadrille/debut_aviation_militaire5.htm)
It was in 1913, on the Moroccan Atlantic coast, that an airman crashed. Lieutenant Cazes, a pioneer pilot, died when he crashed on the rocks on the shore of Essaouira, the former Mogador. In his honour, the name he bore was given to the first aerodrome in Casablanca, Camp-Cazes. Better known today as "Anfa airport", this aerodrome is one of the oldest in the history of Aéropostale.
Between 1919 and 1933, the Anfa aerodrome was an important stage in the transport of mail from Europe to Africa and, later, to Latin America. A few pioneer airmen stopped there, notably Jean Mermoz, Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, Henri Guillaumet and Paul Vachet. The Casa-Anfa airport site developed in the 1930s with the construction, around the building housing the operations command, of a technical block, a terminal and a huge hangar.
A street named after Lieutenant Cazes
Haddou Hamou Lakhal, the first fighter fighter pilot (resistance) in Morocco, was born in 1888 in the Rif area. He participated in the War of the Riffians and the forces of Spain and France (1921-1926) and was captured in 1927 by the French. He was imprisoned to the island of Essaouira until his death in 1950.
“We are in 1948. I am caïd Haddou Ben Hammou Lakhal, former deputy to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of the Rif, founder and commander of its intelligence apparatus, ‘founder of the air forces of the Rif government, aviator. I worked from 1921 to 1926 alongside the Emir Abdelkrim. At the time of the submission of the latter, I was arrested by the French army on May 27, 1926 at Tatguist in the Rif. First, I remained a prisoner for a few months in a military camp in Azemmour. Then, I was placed under house arrest in Mogador with a ban on leaving the city until today..."
An aeroplane outside kasbah
NOTE DE LECTURE : ANTOINE DE SAINT-EXUPERY, TERRE DES HOMMES (1939)
(EMID Ami Bouganim 2020-08-02)
Installés à Casablanca, Essaouira et Tarfaya
Des «Bancs de la Liberté» en hommage à Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
(Le Matin 2017-09-20)
En hommage à Antoine de Saint-Exupéry Essaouira installe son banc de liberté
Haddou Lakhal, le Premier Pilote d'Avion du Maroc (Moorish times)
L’exilé de Mogador by Lachkar, Mhamed
(maison du livre, Institute francais du Maroc)