Chiadma is a territory located in the
South of Morocco, dwelling mainly at the Atlantic coast in the
region between Safi and Essaouira. They mainly
speak Moroccan Arabic with a special accent. The language factor
is the main difference to the neighbouring tribe further to
the south, Haha.
The Chiadma territory is
divided in two regions.
East of the road Ounara-Talmest,
there is the plateau of Kabla - a
dry ground suffering from drought.
To the west between
the mountain Djebel Hadid( The sacred mountain of Regraga) and the
Atlantic Ocean coastal plain of the Sahel.There are garden crops
and seamenand they provide the local
market with vegetables, fruits and fish. In the east Kabla
they produce olive oil, grain and livestock. Linguistic difference
between the Chiadma regions.
The people of Sahel
are mainly arabophones (Arabic speaking) and the people
of Kabla berberophones.(Berber speaking-.
It is not an ethnic opposition rather
a cultural as expressed in different motives and patterns in
art - paintings and carpets.
Map from http://www.facebook.com/Chiadma.Regraga
The Regragas are the inhabitants
of Chiadma. The Berber Regraga were the descendents
of the 7 saints apostles of Islam. During a trip to the Mecca,
they learnt the new religion and they were told by the Prophet
to spread Islam to the Maghreb.
Every spring (March-April)they carry out a pilgrimage
of 44 sacred places : «the spring of Regraga».
They bring the Baraka when
they do their «daour» (trip)
and at every stop you can find a fun fair and a souk where you
can admire the «halqua»,
folkloristic shows with singers and dancers –the chikhates
- a type of music that comes from the Bedouin singing.
Regraga in EssaouiraSkala
1 april 2010
Regraga refers mainly to the large pilgrimage
effectuated annually by the Chiadma tribes. They have
monument in Scala Jdida
It takes place in spring and lasts 39 days.
During these weeks, pilgrims visit a series of local shrines,
from the mouth of the Tensift river south of Safi
to the northern outskirts of the High Atlas, including
the city of Essaouira itself. They are
led by two groups that effectuate a kind of round trip, stopping
at every shrine on the way. One must dress at every shrine a holy
tent made of fan palm fibres and dyed with henna, the other one
arrives in procession with a muqaddim (religious leader)
riding a white horse.
The Daour (tour) ofRegraga visit
in 39 days the tombs of 44 saints.It starts in zaouia de Sidi
Ali Ben Bouali and ends in Sidi Messaoud Boutritiche
(in Had dra)
The founding myth recounts that
the Berber saints went to Mecca to meet the Prophet Mohammed.
They were Christians followers of Jesus, but were awaiting the
arrival of a final prophet. They went to the messenger of God
to convert to Islam. The Regraga were also revealing the glossolalia
of the Prophet Mohammed. Indeed, the latter spontaneously understood
the Berber language in which they spoke. However, his daughter
Fatima did not understand a word unknown language, which to her
looked like rejraja, that is to say, "empty
handed". The Prophet said to her daughter: "You
just give them their name. "He then instructed them to return
to Maghreb to bring Islam. The seven saints obeyed and returned
to their Berber country with an oracle from the prophet Mohammed.
The tribes were converted en masse and reputation of Regraga spread
widely, and well before the first historically attested Arab conquests.
They had acquired the title and prestige of the Companions of
Prophet. Each year, the seven holy warriors visited the tribes
in the region to ensure that they did not apostasy: that is the
origin of Daour.
The seven saints
Sidi Boubker Ben Ashemas
Sidi Salah Ben Boubker
Sidi Abdallah Ben Salah
Sidi Aïssa Bou Khabia
Sidi Yala Ben Ouatil
Sidi Saïd Sabek.
In the countryside in times of droughts, it is
tradition to carry in the fields a white puppet with blossoms -
named LaâroussaChta. [Laâroussa=the bride on her wedding day
The chief of the Regraga Akarmoud is considered
the chief of all Regraga.
Laâroussa relies the oral tradition.
A sacred tent in the red coulour is transported
on the back of a dromedar och represents all the 12 Regraga Zaouias.
The moqadems (chiefs) of their zaouias use the
tent to recieve visitors and gve them baraka. The
Khaïma applies the written tradition of The Ifriquiya.
13 Regraga Zaouias Corresponding to 13 territories or "tribes".
Akarmoud Ait Sidi Baâzzi (The camel which transports
is guided by a member of this zaouia)
While the vast majority of Tunisians (98%), and other North Africans identify themselves culturally as Arabs , scientific studies suggest that they are ethnically closer to Berbers and some Europeans than Arabs.
Ibn Khaldūn was a North African Arab Muslim historiographer and historian, regarded to be among the founding fathers of modern sociology, historiography, demography, and economics. He is best known for his book, the Muqaddimah.
Alternative spelling of Chiadma can be chyadma, الشياظمة